What is the European Central Bank (ECB)? What are its Objectives?

What is the European Central Bank (ECB)? What are its Objectives?


The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 27 European Union (EU) member states that have adopted the euro as their official currency. It was established in 1998 and began operating in 1999, taking over monetary policy responsibilities from the national central banks of the eurozone countries. The ECB is headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany.

The ECB's Objectives and Functions

  • Monetary Policy: Monetary policy refers to the strategies by which a central bank, like the European Central Bank (ECB), controls the supply of money and interest rates to maintain price stability. This generally aims to keep inflation rates below, but close to, 2% over the medium term. To achieve this, the ECB sets key interest rates, conducts open market operations, and employs other necessary measures.
  • Banking Supervision: The ECB is also responsible for supervising the banking system within the eurozone to ensure its safety and soundness. It oversees significant banks in the eurozone through the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM), which was established in 2014. The SSM aims to promote financial stability by ensuring that banks comply with prudential regulations and maintain adequate capital and liquidity levels.
  • Payment Systems and Market Infrastructure: The ECB plays a crucial role in overseeing payment systems and market infrastructure within the eurozone. It operates the TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) for large-value payments and the TARGET2 Securities (T2S) platform for securities settlement. These systems facilitate the efficient and secure transfer of funds and securities between banks and other financial institutions in the eurozone.
  • Currency Issuance: The ECB is responsible for issuing euro banknotes, which are the official currency of the eurozone. It ensures the integrity and quality of euro banknotes and works to combat counterfeiting through various security features and measures.
  • International Representation: The ECB represents the eurozone in international forums and organizations related to monetary and financial matters. It collaborates with other central banks and international institutions to promote global financial stability and cooperation.


To conclude, the European Central Bank plays a pivotal role in conducting monetary policy, supervising banks, maintaining payment systems, and issuing currency within the eurozone. Its main objectives are to ensure price stability and promote financial stability and economic growth.